How to do DNA analysis in Saudi Arabia..and know the traits of success
1. What is DNA DNA?
DNA is a long molecule that contains within it genetic code The (genetic) is unique to every living creature, and this molecule carries all the orders and directions for building the proteins necessary for the functioning of the body. The DNA is a unique imprint that cannot be repeated, constituting the creature’s genetic traits, such as eye color, hair color and many more. Each cell in our body contains the complete set of DNA, meaning that it is repeated in every cell of the body.
DNA instructions are passed on from the parents to the child; As it can be said that half of the child’s DNA comes from the father, and the other half comes from the mother, and this happens at the time of vaccination; The cells of the fetus that are formed, come with their genetic material from the father and the mother together, so that each cell of the fetus consists of two halves of the genetic material that comes from both the sperm and the egg. Research has found that 99.9% of the DNA of two people is identical, and that 0.1% of the DNA code sequences differ from person to person, which is why we are unique.
2. Discovery of DNA (DNA):
In 1869, German biologist Friedrich Mescher observed DNA for the first time.
Researchers did not realize the importance of this molecule until 1953, when the structure of DNA was discovered, and it was realized that it could carry biological information, and that was by James Watson, Francis Crick, Maurice Wilkins, and Rosalinda Franklin.
Watson, Crick, and Wilkins were awarded the 1962 Nobel Prize in Medicine for their discoveries of the molecular structure of nucleic acids.
3. Functions of DNA (DNA):
- It carries genetic information important for the transmission of genes from one generation to the next.
- It contains the necessary instructions for the growth and development of living organisms.
4. Where is the DNA located (DNA)?
DNA is located (DNA) Within structures called chromosomes, which are located inside the nucleus of the cell, and also a small amount of it can be found in the mitochondria, which is the part of the cell responsible for converting the energy that the body gets from food, into a form that is easy for the cell to use.
What is DNA analysis or DNA analysis?
It is a laboratory test, also known as a genetic test. In this test, small samples of blood or body tissues are analyzed, and the type of genetic test needed varies, depending on the condition the doctor is studying or the person’s desired goal.
Biology indicates that each individual possesses a sequence of ribonucleic acid or what is known as (DNA), and the genes of every human being are a mixture of the genetic genes coming from the genes of the mother and the father, and these genetic genes differ from one person to another, with the exception of the twin of the fertilized egg. People who are related carry a common DNA sequence between them.
The best DNA analysis laboratory in the world is located in Hong Kong but offers its services in Saudi Arabia by ordering from their website the complete kit that contains 500 analysis points, and it is called the laboratory Circle DNA. It is considered to be the best laboratory for accreditation of technology Exome Sequencing It gives more than 99.98% accurate results.
How DNA analysis works in Saudi Arabia, duration, cost and sampling?
How are the analyzes performed?DNA)?
In the beginning, a sample of human tissues, fluids, or a sample of hair is taken in some cases. At the same time, samples are taken from the father, and sometimes samples are taken from the mother as well, in case the newborns are mixed, and chemicals are used to separate them from each other. Detection of unique parts of the genome, where the results appear in the form of a pattern of stripes that are matched with other samples.
The duration of the analyzesDNA):
The duration of the DNA analysis varies from one laboratory to another, and the duration of the DNA analysis is a relatively long period, as it extends about two weeks, and the results are kept secret, as in cases of crimes or cases of proving parentage.
DNA analysis cost:
The cost of analyzes varies from one country to another, and according to the method in which the sample is taken, the reputation and reputation of the laboratory, the type of equipment used, the extent of the doctors’ experience and skill, and the accuracy of the results of the tests. But the cost of DNA analysis generally ranges from $100 to $2,000, depending on the test and its complexity.
What are DNA samples?
- blood sample: A blood sample is taken by inserting a needle into a vein in the body, in order to obtain a blood sample from it.
- Sole of the cheek sample: A swab may be performed on the inside of the cheek, in order to conduct a genetic study on it.
- Chorionic villus specimen: A sample of placental tissue is taken, through the vagina and cervix, or through the abdominal wall.
- Samples of hair, saliva, nails, urine, or semen may also be taken.
Weaknesses of DNA analysis:
- The results of the analysis may be incorrect if the samples are contaminated.
- False DNA evidence can be grown at crime scenes.
- The result of the analysis cannot be assumed to be definitive, but rather is viewed as presenting a possibility.
- When the number of samples increases, the probability of an analysis result decreases.
- Ancient DNA analysis techniques may give incorrect results.
Benefits and uses of DNA and knowing your innate traits of success?
DNA analysis is used in many fields; Such as:
1. Proof of parentage:
The process of proving paternity is one of the most important uses of analysis, in case the paternity of a child is questioned.
2. Forensic examination:
The forensic examination is carried out by taking a sample of the traces of the crime, such as a drop of blood on the ground, or skin cells located under the victim’s nails, and comparing the DNA of the sample with the DNA of a sample taken from a suspected person, in order to identify its owner through the genetic fingerprint, and thus reach the criminal.
In some countries, a copy of the genetic material is kept, in the form of electronic files, and placed with the police, for use in solving crimes.
3. Birth defects:
A DNA test is used to test newborns to determine the causes of birth defects.
4. Pregnancy problems:
DNA analysis is useful in revealing the causes of pregnancy problems, such as repeated miscarriages or stillbirth.
DNA analysis is used to find out whether people are siblings or not, especially if a child is lost or adopted by other people.
6. Inspection in Food Industry:
DNA analysis can be used to identify the components of foodstuffs, and whether they contain genetically modified materials!
7. Traveling abroad:
In some countries, visas may require DNA analysis, in order to ascertain the kinship of people traveling to each other.
8. Medical diagnosis:
In the medical field, DNA analysis has several uses; Such as:
- discovering the causes of some diseases; As a genetic test for a breast biopsy, if you suspect the possibility of breast cancer.
- Ensuring the matching of medical tissues between those who wish to donate their organs.
- Discover genetic diseases that are passed down through generations.
- Determine the identity of the bodies that passed away a long time ago.
- Discover information about genetic diseases and gene mutation in humans.
- Determine whether the twins born are identical or not? Identical twins carry the same genetic material.
9. Knowing the traits of success in each person:
Through DNA analysis, it is possible to know the innate talents and abilities of each person, such as emotional intelligence, accounting intelligence, memory skills, entrepreneurship, and even sports or singing.
Does DNA test prove parentage (biological mother or father)?
- The issue of determining parentage is of great importance these days, especially in Western societies in light of the openness in relations outside marriage. Therefore, there was a need to develop techniques to help solve the problem of determining proportions. DNA testing is one of the most important techniques in this field, as it is performed to prove if a person is the real biological father of a child or person.
- Scientific studies confirm that (DNA) analysis can be considered as confirmation of filiation with a percentage of 99.9%, in addition to that it denies filiation with a percentage equivalent to 100%; In other words, if the result of the analysis is not paternity, then it is a 100% scientifically confirmed result, but if the result of the analysis proves the lineage of a person to a specific family, there is a very simple error rate of 0.1%.
- We had previously indicated that every human being is unique in the presence of a biological coded structure consisting of two copies of (DNA), and one of the two parts of this code comes from the father, and the other part from the mother; So when determining the lineage, a sample of the genetic genes, by blood, skin or hair, is taken from the father and the child, then common points are extracted between the father and the child, and when these genes are compatible, paternity is reached, and the result is handed over to the legal parents personally, and no The result may be given over the phone, or by any other means, due to the confidentiality and sensitivity of the matter.
- The process of determining the proportions is carried out through the following steps:
- A sample of the child’s cells and a sample of the father’s cells are collected, and DNA is extracted from both samples.
- Some solvents, or digestive enzymes, are used to purify the DNA from all other cells.
- The samples are placed in special yeasts, which break down the DNA molecules.
- Copies are made of the DNA sample taken, when the sample is not sufficient; This process helps to enlarge the DNA sample, by exposing it to heat and cold for about an hour, and this is known as the polymerase reaction.
- Gel electrophoresis is performed by placing portions of the DNA on the negative end of an electrode plate with a gel-like substance on it. In size, long chains move more slowly than short chains.
- Then, radioactive materials and colored probes are added to the plate, to give a special pattern called a DNA fingerprint.
- The congruence between the two samples is checked, as each sample contains two copies (one from the mother and father of each). In the event that one of the copies is identical, the parentage is proven.
Tips for more accurate DNA results:
- Choosing a highly reliable laboratory with capabilities, tools and expertise, in addition to paying attention to confidentiality of information.
- Experience, skill and professionalism of the person who takes the sample, and that he is specialized in this field, and in preserving the sample so that it does not spoil.
- For further verification, it is recommended to do the analysis more than once, and in different laboratories.